Understanding Financial Statements of Companies

Understanding Financial Statements of Companies

The end part of the accounting process is known as the financial statement.  This end part is a bit complex and makes students working on accounts go for accounting assignment help or accounting homework help. 

The information about the financial position of the business and its profitability is given by the financial statement. Section 129 (1) of the Companies Act 2013, states that the financial statement of a company:

  • should follow the accounting standards which are notified under Section133 and
  • gives the fair view of the state affairs of the company

Objectives of Preparing Financial Statement: –

  • It shows the true nature performance, that is, assets and liabilities, of the business. 
  • It gives the fair view of the financial position, that is, profit or loss, of the business.

Characteristics of Financial Statements: –

  • Financial statements are known to be historical documents since they are related to past period.
  • They are written down in the form of money.
  • Financial statements reflect the financial position with the help of Balance Sheet. They also write down the company’s profitability through Statement of Profit and Loss.

Nature of Financial Statements: –

  1. Recorded facts:

 Recorded facts are known as the data that is used to prepare financial statements that are drawn from accounting records. For example, cost of fixed assets, cash at bank, trade receivables, figures relating to cash in hand, etc. are some of the recorded facts.

 The financial statement does not include the facts that are not recorded in the books if at all they are significant or not. 

The assets that are purchased either at different prices or at different times are reflected in the Balance Sheet at their real cost. 

They are not reflected in the Balance Sheet at their replacement cost because the accounting records that states that the cost price of the set cost is a recorded fact.

  1. Accounting Conventions:

 Accounting Conventions shows certain fundamental accounting principles that are to be kept in mind while preparing financial statement and that have gained wide acceptance.

 For example, because of the convention of ‘Conservatism’, the expected profits are disregarded, and the provision is made in the books for the expected future losses. 

Likewise, the closing inventory is to be valued at the realizable value or at the cost, whichever is less. This signifies that the actual financial position can be much better than the position that is disclosed by financial statements.

  1. Personal Judgements: 

In accounting, personal judgment plays a decisive role. For instance, it is the decision of the accountant that whether the asset is to be depreciated on written down value method, straight-line method, or any other method. 

The rate of depreciation is also decided by him according to his personal judgments. Likewise, even so the inventory is valued at realizable value or cost as in Standard Cost, Average Cost, First in First Out, Last in First Out, etc.

 the accountant has the choice to go with any of these methods. Similarly, it is the responsibility of the accountant to give his personal judgment for the classification of expenditure into capital and revenue, the period for writing off intangible assets, and for the rate of provision for doubtful debts.

There are some general instructions that are to be kept in mind while preparation of Financial Statement, also known as Balance Sheet:

  1. An asset shall be classified as current:

 when it persuades any of the following criteria:

  1. after the reporting date, it is anticipated to be realized within the span of twelve months
  2. it is intended for consumption or sale in, or is expected to be realized in, the normal operating cycle of the company,
  3. for the purpose of being traded, it is held predominately,

Else, the remaining assets shall be classified as non-current.

  1. Operating cycle is known as the time between the acquisition of assets to be processed and their realization either in cash or cash equivalents.

 It is assumed to have a duration of twelve months when the normal operating cycle of the company cannot be identified..

  1. A liability shall be classified as current:

 only when it fulfills any of the following criteria:

  1. it is held predominant for the purpose of being traded,
  2. it must be settled in the company’s normal operating cycle,
  3. after the reporting date, it is due to be settled within twelve months.Rest all are said to be non-current liabilities.
  1. Trade receivables are the receivables that can be called so if they are in the respect of the amount due on the basis of the goods and services sold in the normal course of business. They might include Bills Receivables and Sundry Debtors.
  1. Payables that are in the respect of the amount based on the account of services rendered or goods sold in the normal course of business, is known as trade payables.
  1. No debit balance of profit and loss along with assets: 

The elimination of the debit balance of the Profit and Loss statement from the assets is a mandatory change in Schedule 3. Now, it is presented as the negative balance under the subheading ‘Reserve and Surplus’.

  1. Miscellaneous Expenditure such as Discount on Issue of Shares/Debentures, Preliminary Expenses, Loss on Issue of Debentures, Underwriting Commission must be written off from the sub-heading Securities Premium Reserves (if at all it exists) or from Surplus, that is, balance in Statement of Profit and Loss within ‘Reserve and Surplus’ or General Reserve, in the year in which they occur.
  1. The elimination of the concept of ‘Schedules’ as per Schedule 3 helps such information to be furnished in ‘Notes to Accounts’.

These were a few basic points that students studying accounts must keep in mind and can refer to while going for accounting assignment help or accounting homework help.

A Guide To Buying Shower Heads In Sydney:

A Guide To Buying Shower Heads In Sydney:

Shower heads are essentially the faucets through which water is dispensed when you turn on your shower. These consist of the actual shower head along with the water flow and temperature managing valve.

In such a case wherein your showerhead is either broken, damaged, clogged or simply outdated, you can easily buy a new one. However, don’t just go out to the nearest hardware store in Sydney and pick one at random; consider the various options they house and its quality characteristics.

Do showerheads have types? Well, yes, these provide you with several options to choose from. Each of these varieties has distinguishing features that strive to serve you better; you would find these easily at any design store in Sydney. Before that, let’s learn about a few of these types to help you make a more informed purchase.

Types Of Shower Heads In Sydney:

1. Fixed: A fixed shower head is the traditionally used shower head attached to the shower arm affixed on the walls. Shower head installation is as simple as unscrewing the previous one and screwing on the new one. However, it is important to catch on to the shower arm as a precautionary measure at the time of unscrewing to prevent any possible breakage or damage. Fixed shower heads can come sporting add-on features like rain, massage or water saving.

2. Handheld: A handheld shower head is hinged to an extended hose or pliable pipe-like setting and is rested on a cradle fixed on the bathroom wall. As the name suggests, these can be removed from the cradle, i.e. its holder and held on in one hand, similar to the operation of an old-school landline telephone for better functionality. These can serve needs like washing and bathing pets or kids more conveniently, or even operational cleaning feasibility—these provide further diversification depending on the length of the hose you choose to affix these on.

3. Water saving: A water-saving shower head is capable of ensuring limited flow rate dispersion. This alludes to the measure of gallons per minute of water that a shower head disseminates and limits electricity or gas usage as well. These shower heads are boosted and aerated to project an illusion of increased water dispersion. Water-saving shower heads are also ideal to use in areas with low water pressure situations.

4. Spray or massage: These are spray patterned shower heads that boast unique settings like a jet, rain, aeration, mist or pulse that enable one to adjust the water pressure. These are a stylish and popular choice due to their capacity to create a massage effect. This is possible because of its adjustable jet water pressure that can be customised to touch upon your body’s pressure points, effectively allowing a soothing quality akin to that of a massage. You are bound to find a variety of these at bathroom design stores in Sydney.

5. Rain: These are ideally overhead showers, and one needs to stand under these to be able to uncover its best ability. Similar to how natural rainfall functions, these shower heads disperse water evenly through a large-sized head to ensure wider water distribution. These are bigger than your traditional shower heads and require increased water pressure as well to function optimally.

These were a few types of shower heads that you are likely to find at any store in Sydney. There are other more intricate shower head varieties that you would come across that combine the features as mentioned earlier under one shower head. You could look into those as well. However, these create a basic understanding of how shower heads work to then set on the path to choose the best one to meet your requirement. 

How to quickly cut back rows of tiles?

How to quickly cut back rows of tiles?

Are you planning to cut down the tiles in your space? Many amateur craftsmen who do the laying of floor tiles with their own hands make the mistake of placing a wall row on only one side of the room. Professional tilers mark up and begin laying whole rows of tiles from the centre of the room. Due to this, the edges remain the exact distances, which are then filled with cut-out parts of the solid tile created using a sigma tile cutter.

The direct and immediate task of the grinder is to grind, polish and clean. But, thanks to a special sigma tile cutter, this tool is so convenient that craftsmen use it for cutting and sawing various materials. A sigma tile cutter can cut concrete and brick for laying pipes and cables, gouge walls, cut metal, wood, and drywall.

Quite effectively, this cutter can cut ceramic tiles for cladding a bathroom or kitchen. And although a special tool (tile cutter) is provided for such a procedure, the sigma tile cutter copes with the task very well. And if you know some tricks and nuances, you can get a significantly even cut without chips and cracks.

How to cut wall tiles?

 To quickly measure a wall tile of the desired size, you need to carry out the following operations:

  1. Put the tiles on the already attached whole tiles of the penultimate row, precisely aligning their edges.
  2. Take another tile and lay it so that one side touches the wall and the other two coincide with the sides of the single tile.
  3. After that, it remains to take a pencil and draw a cutting line, while the edge of the top tile serves as a ruler.
  4. Then the tile is cut along the marked line, and the required piece is obtained.

Laying wall tiles around corners 

The same technique is used for cutting tiles laid near corners. Only the operation is repeated two times while obtaining both sides of the corner. First, align the tile with the whole tile on one side of the corner. Put another tile on top and mark the cutting line. Then transfer the same tile to the other side of the corner and draw a second cut line. As a result of the intersections of the lines, the contour of the corner is obtained. 

It is clear that the sigma tile cutter works better, without dust and the risk of ruining everything. It cuts tiles of various thicknesses very carefully. For a one-time minor repair, it is better to buy the cutter for cutting ceramic tiles. At home, with the help of angle grinders, you can smoothly cut any tile without any problems, especially if you already have the skills to work with this tool.

There are many best and professional sigma tile cutters in the city. If you want excellent work, it is always advisable to hire the best tile cutter and look for the quality first. 

What to Consider When Choosing a Local Removalist Firm?

What to Consider When Choosing a Local Removalist Firm?

A local removalist is a company that assists you in packing your belongings and moving to a new location. Removalists should have specific characteristics. In this case, the company has met your expectations. It’s crucial to hire a reputable local removalist. You don’t want to start sloppy when you’re planning to move to a new location. Keep things simple by hiring a skilled removalist.

Letting the company manage your belongings and logistics is a smart move for both parties involved. Determining who is the most excellent local removalist company can be a daunting task, however. Because there are hundreds of companies to select from, it can be tough to choose one that fits your needs and meets your expectations.

Criteria for choosing the best local removalist

Take a look at the company’s reviews

Be sure to read public reviews and the company’s history before hiring. Lesser-known removalist companies often provide valuable insight into their work style, successful projects, and company history by reading the company’s profile. Feel free to hire the company if it meets your needs. Customers can always rely on public reviews to help them choose the right services.

Liability transfer insurance

Always inquire about insurance with your removalist. Always work with a moving company that offers insurance for the items they are moving for peace of mind. As a result of the company’s security measures, their employees should be insured as well as their trucks and vehicles. However, if a company does not offer insurance, there is a high risk of fraud and spam.

Experienced Staff

Good teamwork makes or breaks a company’s success and plays a crucial role in elevating consumer’s lifestyles. With the help of a professional team, you can rest assured that the project will be completed with ease. An excellent local removalist company comprises interior designer, packing specialist, transport coordinator, analyst, planning expert, and manager. 

The credibility of a company

When a brand delivers the promises it makes to its customers; it is considered credible. Their portfolio and customer reviews can verify this. When choosing the most effective solutions in this market, it is essential to identify a reputable local removalist brand. As a result of various factors, the brand’s trustworthiness is enhanced by the relocation service. A company can lose this trust by making a small mistake in the digital age, and consumers can find the best local removalist company by doing a simple Google search.

Time and cost of the service

We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the pricing policy of the removals company. Most local removalist companies charge their clients hourly, but experts say you should stay away from such a company. A better option would be to hire removalists who can provide a full-service package. While the moving process can be unpredictable, it involves several complex tasks; estimating how much time you’ll need to complete the task is difficult.

Therefore, It is crucial to find the right local removalist company because it reduces stress during the relocation process. Choosing a moving company that offers a full range of services, from packing to transport to rearranging your belongings, is essential. In this way, the consumers will have more time to adjust to the new environment.

What are the essential considerable storage costs in Sydney?

What are the essential considerable storage costs in Sydney?

Storage unit prices differ based on the size category which the customer requires- small, medium, large or extra-large. Moreover, the influencing parameters and factors such as geographical, rental period, additional add-on services, and supply can also impact the storage costs in Sydney.

Factors and Parameters influencing storage costs in Sydney:

Experts have revealed that some of the parameters that determine the storage price are the consideration of whether you require a unit to possess an electrical power supply, climate control, insurance or forklifts service specifically for loading and unloading of pallets.

Particularly, residential customers don’t possess a requirement for a powered unit, but the storage industry also accommodates commercial customers. You must remain mindful that the convenience of a powered unit would drive up the cost expenditure of the unit based on the proportion of consumption. As an assisted extension to powered units, some storage facilities also deliver climate-controlled units- temperature and humidity if you are storing products such as electronics, wine or artworks that can be blemished if in the scenario that they are exposed to extreme temperatures.

Although majorly, storage facilities need customers to rent their units for a minimum amount of time. The rental would continue either on a month-to-month basis or as decided by the parties to the transaction. Storage facilities might probably deliver customers a discount for rent paid in advance so, if you rent a medium-sized unit at the professional’s manifestation per month and can very well procure some of the discounts which are offered you on a monthly rental fee which is on an average manner rationalized and normalized concerning storage costs in Sydney.

What can consist of some additional fees in a storage facility?

Some storage facilities levy a one-off administration fee to execute the entire sign-up process. The prices can vary for each new agreement and, at the same time, are non-refundable. Other facilities also charge a cleaning fee and this differs between storage facilities and the corresponding averages. The prudent professionals would not levy such fees on their customers.

A massive majority of customers bear their rental fees by the due date, but some are not as diligent. Late fees and possible auctions fees would be payable on top of their monthly rental fees for those that are not. These fees differ from facility to facility, so you are required to be sure to question the staff about when these delinquent fees are applicable and the proportionate amount to be levied.

Rental increments are reviewed after a fixed duration. Some facilities automatically levy an increase to the proportionate annual estimate. Others, on the contrary, review their prices after twelve months and consider supply, competitor’s rates and or previous discount plans delivered while making an ascertainment and assessment every year. At the professional manifestation, these prudent professionals review rental increases annually and in accordance with the regulatory authorities.

Some allied fees you can anticipate paying for are rubbish removal of general waste or abandoned product items. With the assistance of CCTV cameras monitoring the storage facility, you can be sure that you don’t receive a surprise fee to pay because you are left with your unwanted commodities behind when you vacate your unit and ponder that nobody was monitoring you.

What are the lucrative leverages of cost-effective storage units?

  •  Cost-effective for businesses
  •  Decluttering when selling your home
  •  Store seasonal product items and free up garage space
  •  Keeping and maintaining enormous product items after downsizing your home.
  •  The fundamental base for online retailers or other allied small businesses
  •  Business archiving for compliance obligations

How to select an efficient and cost-effective storage facility?

  • Location and convenience: It provides parking alternatives, proximity to your home or place of business, knowledgeable staff
  • You can very well complement your required and needed storage requirements with the facility’s offerings consisting of car storage alternatives, specialist units for artwork, antique furniture, and much more.
  • Security of the facility: It delivers pin code access as well as CCTV cameras and regular and periodic lock checks
  • Accessibility: This inclines and replicates uneven surfaces, hours for customer access, goods lift for upper-level units.


Identifying and ascertaining affordable storage cost expenditures is simpler and effortless than ever with the assistance of professionals concerning storage costs in Sydney. These professionals make every part and component of renting storage units, mobile storage, and moving simpler and more relaxed. If you need and require a customized new storage solution, your home or business space is inefficient. Professionals are ready and prepared to take care of the desired maintenance of all the product items you must store. Get started today to grab the cost-effective storage units and become an opportunist.

Cheap Kitchens In Blacktown Ideas – Focus On Your Budget Before Making The Changes Possible

Not everyone is lucky enough to spend a lot of money while designing their kitchens. Most of you might be going through some tight monthly budget plans but still want to upgrade the look of your kitchen. With some cheap kitchens in Blacktown ideas, you can make the necessary changes. The best part is that for such fixtures, you don’t have to burn a hole in the pocket. Yet, the results will look as exquisite as possible.

So with some cheap changes in kitchen cabinets near me and some more, you can change the look to a luxurious one. With so many important options, you can actually get your hands on the best kitchen style. Just go through all the possible options and then make way for the right one you are opting for.

  • Quality check-ups are mandatory:

Now, no matter whatever kind of changes you want to make to your cheap kitchens in Blacktown routine, you need to check the quality of it all. These cheap kitchen spaces are really tough for you to ignore. 

  1. Even though you might be using some cheap supplies and items to elevate the look of the kitchen, the quality should always be on a high scale.
  2. To make this even more interesting, the kitchen styling designers and manufacturers will address flexible rates for their items.
  3. Sometimes, they might offer some discounted deals on kitchen supplies so that you can end up with the best products but without investing a lot of money for the same.
  • Focus on the ranges:

It is true that you have to check out the range before investing in kitchen cabinets near me. Now you must be wondering if these changes are too expensive, but if you research well, you can gladly come across some cheap changes.

  1. Try painting the walls of your kitchen. Fresh paint can always elevate the look of the kitchen space and give it a new meaning.
  2. You can even change the lights and add some cost-effective Led lights to it. This is going to give out a result, which is hard for you to ignore.
  3. Moreover, you can add the custom cabinets for your modular kitchen and make use of all the available space you can get to keep things organised in your kitchen.
  • The styles will matter too:

Always remember that before you head for the cheap kitchens in Blacktown, make sure to focus on the style. Do you think that your chosen style is suitable for the available kitchen space you have? Do you have to custom made some products to fit them well into your limited space? Get these answers first before you can start styling up the kitchen area.

Focus on the main workers and construction experts for your kitchen cabinets near me and other parts of the kitchen. It will provide you with the most promising results that you can get hands-on. With experienced professionals by your side, you can get what you want with kitchen space.